- Diabetes and babies
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- Weight gain
- Blood sugar levels
- Extra monitoring
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There’s lots of good news for pregnant women with type 2 diabetes (a condition in which the body doesn’t respond as it should to insulin). In fact, with the right medical help and diligent self-care, you have about the same excellent chances of having a successful pregnancy and a healthy baby as any other expectant mom.
The key to managing type 2 diabetes during pregnancy? Achieving normal blood glucose levels six months before conception and maintaining those levels throughout the nine months following it. So if your diabetes has been under control, it’s more important than ever to continue your routine now that there are two of you on board. Here''re heading into pregnancy with type 2 diabetes.
How does diabetes affect babies during pregnancy?
glucose intolerance medical definition mellitus nature reviews (👍 vegan) | glucose intolerance medical definition with hyperglycemia icd 10how to glucose intolerance medical definition for If you have type 2 diabetes, you have higher levels of glucose circulating in your blood, and health issues can arise if your blood sugar levels aren’t well monitored and managed. That’s because extra sugar can be transferred to baby while you''s not always as strict as it used to be for those on fast-acting insulin, which can be adjusted if you go over your limit.
Gaining the right amount of weight
It’s best to try to reach your ideal weight before conception. But if you start your pregnancy overweight or obese, it will be extra important to set a weight gain goal with your practitioner and to stick to it (think: slow and steady). Gaining too much weight can put you at risk of other pregnancy complications, so be sure to keep an eye on the scale. Your baby’s growth will also be monitored using ultrasound. That’s because babies of diabetics sometimes grow very large, even if mom’s weight is on target. Heavier babies make delivery more difficult (there’s a higher chance of childbirth complications and/or cesarean delivery when baby is very large) and they are also more likely to be overweight as adults and have a higher risk of diabetes, heart disease and other illnesses later in life.
Fitting in fitness
A moderate exercise program will give you more energy, help regulate your blood sugar, keep your weight gain on track and get you in good shape for delivery. But it must be planned with your doctors in conjunction with your diet and medication regimen. If you have no other complications and are physically fit, moderate exercise — brisk walking (but not jogging), swimming and riding a stationary bike — will likely be on the workout menu. Chances are that only very light exercise (leisurely walking, for instance) will get the green light if you were out of shape before getting pregnant or if there are any signs of problems with your diabetes, your pregnancy or your baby’s growth.
The precautions you take during exercise probably won’t differ much from those of any other pregnant woman: Have a snack before your workout, don’t exert yourself to the point of exhaustion and never exercise in a very warm environment (80°F or higher).
If you’re on insulin, you’ll probably be advised to avoid injecting it into the parts of the body you''s staying within safe levels. While you should always check with your practitioner to know what your numbers mean for you, here are a few general guidelines:
- Before a meal your fasting blood sugar number should be in the 60-99mg/dl range
- One to two hours after eating the numbers should be 100-129 mg/dl
You may be told to write down the results along with what you''ll need to have checkups and more routine tests. Along with regular blood screenings, here are some of the exams you can expect:
- Urine tests. Since your body may produce ketones — acidic substances that can result when the body breaks down fat, resulting in too-high levels that can be dangerous for baby — during this close regulation of your diabetes, your practitioner may check your urine regularly. Your urine will also be tested regularly for protein (sometimes over 24 hours) to make sure your kidney function is up to par.
- Eye exams. You’ll probably have an eye exam within the year to check the condition of your retinas. Retinal problems tend to worsen during pregnancy, but if your diabetes has been under control, your eye health usually returns to its pre-pregnancy status after delivery.
- Fetal electrocardiogram. Because there’s a slightly higher risk of heart problems in the babies of diabetics, you’ll probably get a special ultrasound of the fetal heart at about 22 weeks to make sure everything’s going well.
- Tests of baby’s well-being. The condition of your baby and the placenta will likely be evaluated throughout your third trimester with stress or nonstress tests and biophysical profiles. You’ll also have regular ultrasounds to gauge baby’s size and ensure that he or she is growing at the right rate (and as you near delivery, that your little bundle isn’t getting too big for a vaginal delivery). And you may be asked to count your baby’s kicks three times a day after the 28th week to monitor fetal movements.
Because diabetics are at somewhat higher risk for preeclampsia, your doctor will watch you closely for early signs of that condition, too (such as elevated blood pressure).
Elective early delivery
Women who develop gestational diabetes, as well as women with preexisting mild diabetes that is well controlled, can usually carry to their due date safely — though their babies are more likely to be born prematurely. But when mom’s normal blood sugar levels have not been well maintained throughout pregnancy, if the placenta deteriorates early or if other problems develop late in pregnancy, baby may be delivered a the 1 last update 04 Jul 2020 week or two before term. The various tests mentioned above help a physician decide when to induce labor or perform a C-section — late enough so the fetal lungs are sufficiently mature to function outside the womb, but not so late that the baby’s safety is compromised.Women who develop gestational diabetes, as well as women with preexisting mild diabetes that is well controlled, can usually carry to their due date safely — though their babies are more likely to be born prematurely. But when mom’s normal blood sugar levels have not been well maintained throughout pregnancy, if the placenta deteriorates early or if other problems develop late in pregnancy, baby may be delivered a week or two before term. The various tests mentioned above help a physician decide when to induce labor or perform a C-section — late enough so the fetal lungs are sufficiently mature to function outside the womb, but not so late that the baby’s safety is compromised.
If your baby is delivered early, don’t worry if she’s placed in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) immediately after delivery. This is routine procedure for babies born before 37 weeks. Your baby will be observed for respiratory problems (which are unlikely if the lungs were tested and found to be mature enough for delivery) and for hypoglycemia (which, though more common in babies of women with diabetes, is easily treated). You should be able to get your baby back soon so you can start nursing, if that’s your plan.
Feeding and caring for baby after delivery
If you’re planning to breastfeed, baby should be breastfed as soon as possible after birth, ideally within 30 minutes, and then every two to three hours to prevent hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar. Be sure to ask the hospital staff not to test your baby’s blood glucose levels until just before the second feed (make sure you’ve discussed that with your practitioner before delivery) so that a diagnosis of hypoglycemia isn’t made prematurely. Check, too, that your baby isn’t given formula or glucose water and is brought to you regularly and early for continued feedings.
Complications of type 2 diabetes
Since diabetes affects almost every system in the body — brain, heart, skin, nerves, eyes and kidneys — failing to manage your glucose levels could put you at increased risk of a number of complications, from high blood pressure and preeclampsia to vision problems and even heart disease.
Babies of moms with unmanaged type 2 diabetes during pregnancy are also at increased risk of complications. If type 2 diabetes is not controlled properly during the first trimester, excessive sugar can affect the rapidly-developing fetal nervous system, resulting in brain and spinal defects and an increased risk of miscarriage. In the second trimester, high fetal glucose levels can lead to macrosomia, a condition where a baby receives too many nutrients in the womb and is born larger than average.
glucose intolerance medical definition snacks (👍 dizziness) | glucose intolerance medical definition zhongwenhow to glucose intolerance medical definition for Uncontrolled high blood sugar during pregnancy has also been linked to a number of other serious complications for babies, including heart problems, cleft palate, kidney and gastrointestinal tract disorders, brain damage, jaundice, hypocalcaemia (low calcium) and polycythemia (increase in red the 1 last update 04 Jul 2020 blood cells). Babies of women with diabetes are also at higher risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life.Uncontrolled high blood sugar during pregnancy has also been linked to a number of other serious complications for babies, including heart problems, cleft palate, kidney and gastrointestinal tract disorders, brain damage, jaundice, hypocalcaemia (low calcium) and polycythemia (increase in red blood cells). Babies of women with diabetes are also at higher risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life.While diabetes does put you and your baby at increased risk of complications during pregnancy, these risks are greatly diminished when the diabetes is managed effectively. By taking control of your condition — closely monitoring your blood sugar, eating healthy, getting regular exercise and gaining the amount of weight that''re Expecting. Health information on this site is based on peer-reviewed medical journals and highly respected health organizations and institutions including ACOG (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists), CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics), as well as the What to Expect books by Heidi Murkoff.
- What to Expect When You''s Healthy?, February 2017.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Weight Gain During Pregnancy, May 2018.
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Diabetes and Women, February 2016.
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, A Healthy Pregnancy for Women With Diabetes, December 2011.
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Weight Gain During Pregnancy, 2018.
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Nutrition During Pregnancy, February, 2018.
- Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Healthy Weight During Pregnancy, February, 2017.
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